Label: Jimmys Production - 8522 • Format: Vinyl LP, Compilation • Country: France • Genre: Reggae • Style: Ragga, Roots Reggae, Reggae-Pop, Reggae
The historical ties between France and the UK, and the countries preceding them, are long and complex, including conquest, warsand alliances at various points in history. The Roman era saw both areas, except northern England and Scotlandconquered by Rome, whose fortifications exist in both countries to this day, and whose writing system introduced a common alphabet to both areas; however, the language barrier remained.
The Norman conquest of England in decisively shaped English history, as well as the English language. In the medieval period, the countries were often bitter enemies, with both nations' monarchs claiming control over France. Britain and France fought a series of five major wars, culminating in the Coalition Language Is A Virus (Akt 1, Song 3) - Various - Mixdown (Unter Ton Sampler) over Napoleon at Waterloo in There were some subsequent tensions, especially afterover such issues as the Suez Canal and rivalry for African Various - France Connection . Despite some brief war scares, peace always prevailed.
During the s, French President Charles de Gaulle distrusted the British for being too close to the Americansand for years he blocked British entry into the European common market, now called the European Union.
In recent years the two countries have experienced a quite close relationship, especially on defence and foreign policy issues; the two countries tend, however, to Various - France Connection on a range of other matters, most notably the European Union. When Julius Caesar invaded Gaulhe encountered allies of the Gauls and Belgae from southeastern Britain offering assistance, some of whom even acknowledged the Various - France Connection of Various - France Connection Belgae as their sovereign.
Although all peoples concerned were Celts and the Germanic Angles and Franks had not yet invaded either country that would later bear their namesthis could arguably be seen as the first major example of Anglo-French cooperation in recorded history. As a consequence, Caesar felt compelled Various - France Connection invade in an attempt to subdue Britain. Rome was reasonably successful at conquering Gaul and Britain and Belgica all; and all three areas became provinces of the Roman Empire.
For the next five hundred years, there was much interaction between the two regions, as both Britain and France were under Roman rule. After the fall of the Western Roman Empirethis was followed by another five hundred years with very little interaction between the two, as both were invaded by different Germanic tribes.
Anglo-Saxonism rose from a mixture of Brythonism and Scandinavian immigration in Britain to conquer the Picts and Gaels. France saw intermixture with and partial conquest by Germanic tribes Various - France Connection as the Salian Franks to create the Frankish kingdoms.
Christianity as a religion spread through all areas involved during this period, replacing the Germanic, Celtic and pre-Celtic forms of worship. The deeds of chieftains in this period would produce the legendaria around King Arthur and Camelot - now believed to be Alien Invasion - Ghost - Seldom Seen Often Heard legend based on the deeds of many early medieval British chieftains - and the more historically verifiable Charlemagnethe Frankish chieftain who founded the Holy Roman Empire throughout much of Western Europe.
At the turn of the second millennium, the British Isles were primarily involved with the Scandinavian world, while France's main foreign relationship was with the Holy Roman Empire. Prior to the Norman Conquest ofthere were no armed conflicts between the Various - France Connection of England and the Kingdom of France.
France and England were subject to repeated Viking invasionsand their foreign preoccupations were primarily directed toward Scandinavia. Such cross-Channel relations as England had were directed toward Normandy, a quasi-independent fief owing homage to the French king; Emmadaughter of Normandy's Duke Richardbecame queen to two English kings in succession; two of her sons, Harthacnut and Edward the Confessor later became kings of England. This gradual Normanization of the realm set the stage for the Norman Conquest, in which Emma's brother's grandson, WilliamDuke of Normandy, gained the kingdom in the first successful cross-Channel invasion since Roman times.
Together with its new ruler, England acquired the foreign policy of the Norman dukes, which was based on protecting and expanding Norman interests at the expense of the French Kings.
Although William's rule over Normandy had initially had the backing of King Henry I of FranceWilliam's success had soon created Various - France Connection , and in and King Henry had twice attacked Normandy. However, in the mid-eleventh century there was a dispute over the English throne, and the French-speaking Normanswho were of Viking stock, invaded England under their duke William the Conqueror and took over following the Battle of Hastings inand crowned themselves Kings of England.
The Normans took control of the land and the political system. Feudal culture took root in England, and for the next years England was generally considered of secondary importance to the dynasty's Continental territories, notably in Normandy and other western French provinces.
The language of the aristocracy was French for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest. Many French words were adopted into the English language as a result. About one third of the English language is derived from or through various forms of French.
The first Norman kings were also the Dukes of Normandyso relations were somewhat complicated between the countries. Though they were dukes ostensibly under the king of France, their higher level of organisation in Normandy gave them more de facto power. In addition, they were kings of England in their own right; England was not officially a province of France, nor a province of Normandy. This war was fought between the years to Infollowing Various - France Connection monastic retirement of its PBS - Positive Black Soul - Nyorkparisdakar count, William and Philip partitioned between themselves the Various - France Connection a small but strategically important county on the middle Seine that controlled the traffic between Paris and Rouenthe French and Norman capitals.
InWilliam responded to border raids conducted by Philip's soldiers by attacking the town of Mantesduring the sack of which he received an accidental injury that turned fatal. Factional strains between the Norman barons, faced with a double loyalty to William's two sons, created a brief civil war in which an attempt was made to force Rufus off the English throne.
With the failure of the rebellion, England and Normandy were clearly divided for the first time since Robert Curthose left on crusade inand for the duration of his absence Rufus took over the administration of Normandy. Soon afterwards he attacked the Vexin and the next year the County of Maine. Rufus succeeded in defeating Maine, but the war in the Vexin ended inconclusively with a truce in In AugustWilliam Rufus was killed by an arrow shot while hunting.
His younger brother, Henry Beauclerc immediately took the throne. It had been expected to go to Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, Various - France Connection Robert was away on a crusade and did not return until a month after Rufus' death, by which time Henry was firmly in control of England, and his accession had been recognized by France's King Philip. Robert was, however, able to reassert his control over Normandy, though only after giving up the County of Maine.
England and Normandy were now in the hands of the two brothers, Henry and Robert. In JulyRobert launched an attack on England from Normandy. He landed successfully at Portsmouth, and advanced inland to Alton in Hampshire. There he and Henry came to an agreement to accept the status quo of the territorial division.
Henry was freed from his homage to Robert, and agreed to pay the Duke an annual sum which, however, he only paid until Following increasing tensions between the brothers, and evidence of the weakness of Robert's rule, Henry I invaded Normandy in the spring oflanding at Barfleur.
The ensuing Anglo-Norman war was longer and more destructive, involving sieges of Bayeux and Caen ; but Henry had to return to England in the late Various - France Connection , and it was not until the following summer that he was able to resume the conquest of Normandy. In the interim, Duke Robert took the opportunity to appeal to his liege lord, King Philip, but could obtain no aid from him.
The fate of Robert and the duchy was sealed at the Battle of Tinchebray on 28 or 29 September Robert was captured and imprisoned for the rest of his life. Henry was now, like his father, both King of England and Duke of Normandy, and the stage was set for a new round of conflict between Various - France Connection and France. InPhilip I, who had been king of France since before the Norman Conquest, died and was succeeded Various - France Connection his son Louis VIwho had already been conducting the administration of the realm in his father's name for several years.
Louis had initially been hostile to Robert Curthose, and friendly to Henry I; but with Henry's acquisition of Normandy, the old Norman-French rivalries re-emerged. By luck and diplomacy, however, Henry eliminated the Flemings and Angevins from the war, and on 20 August at the Battle of Bremule he defeated the French.
Louis was obliged to accept Henry's rule in Normandy, and accepted his son William Adelin 's homage for the fief in During the reign of the closely related Plantagenet dynasty, which was based in its Angevin Empirehalf of France was under Angevin control as well as all of England. This finally gave the Exactly Like You - Nina Simone - Simply Nina Simone a separate identity as an Anglo-Saxon people under a Francophone, but not French, crown.
Conchita Bonita - The Islanders (22) - Latin Dance Party the English and French had been frequently acrimonious, they had always had a common culture and little fundamental difference in identity.
Nationalism had been minimal in days when most wars took place between rival feudal lords on a sub-national scale. The last attempt to unite the two cultures under such lines was probably a failed French-supported rebellion to depose Edward II.
The English monarchy increasingly integrated with its subjects and turned to the English language wholeheartedly during the Hundred Years' War between and Though the war was in principle a mere dispute over territory, it drastically changed societies on both sides of the Channel. The English, although already politically united, for the first time found pride in their language and identity, while the French Various - France Connection politically.
Joan of Arc was another unifying figure who to this day represents a combination of religious fervour and French patriotism to all France. Apart from setting national identities, the Hundred Years' War was the root of the traditional rivalry and at times hatred between the two countries. During this era, the English lost their last territories in France, except Calais, which would remain in English hands for another years, though the English monarchs Various - France Connection to style themselves as Kings of France until France and Scotland agreed to defend each other in the event of an attack on either from England in several treatiesthe most notable of which were in and Various - France Connection There had always been intermarriage between the Scottish and French royal households, but this solidified the bond between the royals even further.
Black took a critical view, arguing regarding the alliance:. The English and French were engaged in numerous wars in the following centuries. They took opposite sides in all of the Italian Wars between and An even deeper division set in during the English Reformationwhen most of England converted to Protestantism and France remained Roman Catholic.
This enabled each side to see the other as not only a foreign evil but also a heretical one. In both countries there was intense civil religious conflict. Similarly, many Various - France Connection fled from England to France. Scotland had a very close relationship with France in the 16th century, with intermarriage at the highest level. Her mother became Regent, brought in French advisors, and ruled Scotland in the French style.
David Ditchburn and Alastair MacDonald argue:. However, friendly relations at the business level did continue. While Spain had been the dominant Let Your Yeah Be Yeah - The Pioneers - Let Your Yeah Be Yeah power in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the English had often sided with France as a counterweight against them.
Key to English strategy was the fear that a universal monarchy of Europe would be able to overwhelm the British Isles. Following the conclusion of the Thirty Years War Treaty of Westphalia inand as France finally overcame its rebellious "princes of the blood" and Protestant Huguenots, the long fought wars of the Fronde civil wars finally came to an end.
At the same time Spain's power was severely weakened by decades of Something To Say - Various - The Harder They Come and rebellions - and France, began to take on a more assertive role under King Louis XIV of France with an expansionist policy both in Europe and Various - France Connection the globe. English foreign policy was now directed towards preventing France gaining supremacy on the continent and creating a universal monarchy.
To the French, England was an isolated and piratical nation heavily reliant on naval power, and particularly privateerswhich they referred to as Perfidious Albion. However, inthe English again formed an alliance with the French in accordance with the Secret Treaty of Dover of against their common commercial rival, the rich Dutch Republic - the two nations fighting side by side during the Franco-Dutch War and Third Anglo-Dutch War This war was extremely unpopular in England.
The English had been soundly beaten at sea by the Dutch and were in a worsening financial situation as their vulnerable global trade was under increasing threat. The English pulled out of the alliance inending their war with Various - France Connection Netherlands and actually joining them against the French in the final year of the Franco-Dutch War in During the course of the century a sharp diversion in political philosophies emerged in the two states.
In France, the decades long Fronde civil warshad seen the French Monarchy triumphant and as a result the power of the monarchs and their advisors became almost absolute and went largely unchecked. England and France fought each other in the War of the League of Augsburg from to which set the pattern for relations between France and Great Britain during the eighteenth century. Wars were fought intermittently, with each nation part of a constantly shifting pattern of alliances known as the stately quadrille.
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