Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen
Label: Autogram - ALLP-229 • Format: Vinyl LP, Compilation • Country: Germany • Genre: Folk, World, & Country • Style: Nordic
The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Finland's population is 5. Over 1. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions. InFinland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.
Inthe fledgling state was divided by civil warwith the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guardsupported by Soviet Russiafighting the White Guardsupported by the German Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen . After a brief attempt to establish a kingdomthe country became a republic. Finland remained largely an agrarian country until the s. The country rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic modelresulting in widespread prosperity and a high per capita income.
Finland joined the United Nations in and adopted an official policy of neutrality. The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti U The third was found in Gotland.
It has the inscription finlandi G and dates back to the 13th century. In addition to the close relatives of Finnish the Finnic languagesthis name is also used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. The word originally referred only to the province of Finland Properand later to the northern coast of Gulf of Finlandwith northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later.
Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa fen land or suoniemi fen capebut these are now considered outdated. The earliest attested use of word Suomi is in in the Royal Frankish Annals where it is used as a person name connected to a peace treaty. This region later became known as Finland Proper in distinction from the country name Finland. Finland became a common name for the whole country in a centuries-long process that started when the Catholic Church established missionary diocese in Nousiainen in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.
The devastation of Finland during the Great Northern War — and during the Russo-Swedish War — caused Sweden to begin carrying out major efforts to defend its eastern half from Russia. These 18th-century experiences created a sense of a shared destiny that when put in conjunction with the unique Finnish language, led Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen the adoption of an expanded concept of Finland.
If the archeological finds from Wolf Cave are the result of Neanderthals' activities, the first people inhabited Finland approximately ,—, years ago. The artifacts Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen first settlers left behind present characteristics that are shared with those found in EstoniaRussia, and Norway.
In the Bronze Age permanent all-year-round cultivation and animal husbandry spread, but the cold climate phase slowed the change. Seima-Turbino-phenomenon brought first bronze artifacts to the region and possibly also the Finno-Ugric-Languages. Domestic manufacture of bronze artifacts started BC with Maaninka-type bronze axes.
Bronze was imported from Volga region and from Southern Scandinavia. Finland proper was the most densely populated area. Cultural contacts to the Baltics and Scandinavia became more frequent. Commercial contacts in the Baltic Sea region grew and extended during the 8th and 9th centuries. Main exports from Finland were furs, slaves, castoreumand falcons to European courts. Imports included silk and other fabrics, jewelry, Ulfberht swordsand, in lesser extent, glass. Production of iron started approximately in BC.
At the end of the 9th century, indigenous artifact culture, especially women's jewelry and weapons, had more common local features than ever before. This has been interpreted to be expressing common Finnish identity which was born from an image of common origin. Common Finnic language was spoken around Gulf of Finland years ago. The dialects from which the modern-day Finnish language was developed came into existence during the Iron Age.
The Sami cultural identity and the Sami language have survived in Lapland, the northernmost province, but the Sami have been displaced or assimilated elsewhere. The 12th and 13th centuries were a violent time in the northern Baltic Sea.
The Livonian Crusade was ongoing Hard To Say No - Foster And Lloyd - Foster And Lloyd the Finnish tribes such as the Tavastians and Karelians were in frequent conflicts with Novgorod and with each other.
Also, during the 12th and 13th centuries several crusades from the Catholic realms of the Baltic Sea area were made against the Finnish tribes.
According to historical sources, Danes waged two crusades on Finland, in and in and Swedespossibly the so-called second crusade to Finlandin against Tavastians and the third crusade to Finland in against the Karelians. The so-called first crusade to Finlandpossibly inis most likely an unreal event. Also, it is possible that Germans made violent conversion of Finnish pagans in the 13th century.
As a result of the crusades and the colonisation of some Finnish coastal areas with Christian Swedish population during the Middle Ages,  Finland gradually became part of the kingdom of Sweden and the sphere of influence of the Catholic Church. Due to the Swedish conquest, the Finnish upper class lost its position and lands to the new Swedish and German nobility and to the Catholic Church.
Swedish kings visited Finland rarely and in Swedish contemporary texts Finns were portrayed to be primitive and their language inferior.
Swedish became the dominant language of the nobility, administration, and education; Finnish was chiefly a language for the peasantryclergy, and local courts in predominantly Finnish-speaking areas.
During the Protestant Reformationthe Finns gradually converted to Lutheranism. In the 16th century, Mikael Agricola published the first written works in Finnish. The first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turkuwas established in Finland suffered a severe famine in —during Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen about one third of the Finnish population died,  and a devastating plague a few years later.
In the 18th century, wars between Sweden and Russia twice led to the occupation of Finland by Russian forces, times known to the Finns as the Greater Wrath — and the Lesser Wrath — Two Russo-Swedish wars in twenty-five years served as reminders to the Finnish people of La Boum À Véro - Benoit Blue Boy - Original precarious position between Sweden and Κάποια Άλλη - Δημήτρης Λέκκας, Δημήτρης Βενιζέλος, Ελένη Τσαγκαράκη - Νύχτα Κι Άλλη Νύχτα. An increasingly vocal elite in Finland soon determined that Finnish ties with Sweden were becoming too costly, and following Russo-Swedish War —the Finnish elite's desire to break with Sweden only heightened.
Even before the war there were conspiring politicians, among them Col G. Sprengtportenwho had supported Gustav III's coup in Sprengporten fell out with the king and resigned his commission in In the following decade he tried to secure Russian support for an autonomous Finland, and later became an adviser to Catherine II. Notwithstanding the efforts of Finland's elite and nobility to break ties with Sweden, there was no genuine independence movement in Finland until the early twentieth century.
As a matter of fact, at this time the Finnish peasantry was outraged by the actions of their elite and almost exclusively supported Gustav's actions against the conspirators. The High Court of Turku condemned Sprengtporten as a traitor c. During the Russian era, the Finnish language began to gain recognition. From the s onwards, a strong Finnish nationalist movement known as the Fennoman movement grew.
Milestones included the publication of what would become Finland's national epic — the Kalevala — inand the Finnish language's achieving equal legal status with Swedish in The famine led the Russian Empire to ease financial regulations, and investment rose in following decades. Economic and political development was rapid. Inuniversal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. However, the relationship between the Grand Duchy and the Russian Empire soured when the Russian government made moves to restrict Finnish autonomy.
For example, the universal suffrage was, in practice, virtually meaningless, since the tsar did not have to approve any of the laws adopted by the Finnish parliament. Desire for independence gained ground, first among radical liberals  and socialists.
Since the head of state was the tsar of Russia, it was not clear who the chief executive of Finland was after the revolution. The Parliament, controlled by social democrats, passed the so-called Power Act to give the highest authority to the Parliament. This was rejected by the Russian Provisional Government which decided to dissolve the Parliament. New elections were conducted, Jane Badler With Sir - The Devil Has My Double which right-wing parties won with a slim majority.
Some social democrats refused to accept the result and still claimed that the dissolution of the parliament and thus the ensuing elections were extralegal. The two nearly equally powerful political blocs, the right-wing parties and the social democratic party, were highly antagonized. The October Revolution in Russia changed the geopolitical situation anew. Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision Various - Finnland - Folklore - Karelien & Österbotten In Authentischen Aufnahmen block the transfer of highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.
Rather than acknowledge the authority of the Power Act of a few months earlier, the right-wing government declared independence on 6 December On 27 Januarythe official opening shots of the war were fired in two simultaneous events. The government started to disarm the Russian forces in Pohjanmaaand the Social Democratic Party staged a coup.
This sparked the brief but bitter civil war. The Whiteswho were supported by Imperial Germanyprevailed over the Reds. Deep social and political enmity was sown between the Reds and Whites and would last until the Winter War and beyond. The civil war and activist expeditions into Soviet Russia strained Eastern relations. The Finnish—Russian border was determined by the Treaty of Tartu inlargely following the historic border but granting Pechenga Finnish : Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
Finnish democracy did not see any Soviet coup attempts and survived the anti-Communist Lapua Movement. The relationship between Finland and the Soviet Union was tense. Army officers were trained in France, and relations with Western Europe and Sweden were strengthened. Inthe population was 3 million. Credit-based land reform was enacted after the civil war, increasing the proportion of capital-owning population.
This was followed by the Lapland War of —, when Finland fought retreating German forces in northern Finland. The treaties signed in and with the Soviet Union included Finnish obligations, restraints, and reparations—as well as further Finnish territorial Various - Dream City Volume 2 in addition to those in the Je Ne Sais Pas Ce Que Je Veux (Tiny Godess) - Françoise Hardy - Je Ne Sais Pas Ce Que Je Veux / La T Peace Treaty of Almost the whole population, somepeoplefled these areas.
The former Finnish territory now constitutes part Winter Wonderland - Renée Fleming - Christmas In New York Russia's Republic of Karelia.
Finland was never occupied by Soviet forces and it retained its independence, but at a loss of about 93, soldiers.
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