Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress....
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Die Wallfahrt der Fallsuechtigen nach Meulebeeck, an engraving by Hendrick Hondius based on a drawing by Pieter Brueghel depicting the dancing plague, via Wikimedia Commons. To be certain, the Middle Ages were a high time for mysterious illnesses.
The most commonly known illness of Writing Proficiency - Capitalist Casualties - Disassembly Line era, the Black Plague, certainly seemed mysterious during its horrific reign across Europe. How were the physicians of that time to ascertain that the buboes—the hot and tender egg-like protuberances swelling on the necks, groins and armpits of the infected, from which the term bubonic is derived—were rising from the bites of fleas carrying the disease from rats to humans?
Thinking the disease to be spread through corrupted air, they prescribed relocation, and of course this was effective since distance from the rats and their fleas meant less chance of being bitten. However, this diaspora also resulted in the spread of the disease. Still, the treatment appeared successful, and often the reason why a cure proved effective was just as mysterious as the illness itself. Like the bubonic plague, many of the most mysterious illnesses of the medieval period were characterized by horrible boils and sores, such that it almost seemed like a succession of biblical plagues.
In Paris, in C. It has since become clear that St. Other mysterious diseases presenting suppurating sores likewise elicited some odd treatments. Water Elf Disease, which may have been something similar to endocarditis, was thought to be caused by the stab of a witch, and sufferers sought relief through song. One such mysterious illness that spread festering boils across Europe was known as the 6x4 - Livingston - Sign Language Disease as it appeared to have been transmitted by the French to the Italians during the siege of Naples.
This medieval illness, however, persisted into the Early Modern Era and beyond, eventually coming to be known as the Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress. transmitted infection syphilis. And syphilis was not alone in surviving the Middle Ages. There was another holdover plague with a much longer history that reappeared in the 16th century. This one, however, caused no boils, no sores.
Instead Gallito - Various - Ole Y Olé caused an ecstasy, though not in the euphoric sense. Rather, this was the ecstasy of a frenzied trance that eventually broke the body and killed the sufferer. Strasbourg circavia ResearchGate. Among narrow streets choked with pedestrian traffic and mongers of every stripe, a hausfrau by the name of Troffea began to dance. No strains of music were heard to prompt her rhythmic motions.
Indeed, by one subsequent reporther husband had just instructed her to perform a task she did not Hypodermic Needle - Novaks Kapelle - Hypodermic Needle / Doing That Rhythm Thing to do, and he stood in exasperation, demanding, to no avail, that she cease her antics. Thus, as Frau Troffea continued her silent and solitary dance, it was at first dismissed by onlookers as a domestic squabble.
One can imagine the dance itself as commencing slowly, almost lazily, with some swaying motions and fluid movements of the limbs. As minutes then turned to hours and her dance continued, onlookers gathered. It is not recorded whether her husband remained in concern or left in anger at her behavior. What is known is that while some among her audience still believed her to be acting out in defiance of her husband, others began to think something more sinister was at work.
As fatigue set in, her dancing grew more violent and fitful, almost like contortions, and some began to suggest she was possessed by a demon. She had not eaten or taken water and was drenched in sweat. Eventually, she collapsed, but her strange episode was not over. When she awoke, she stood slowly and began again her danse macabre.
This continued, depending on the source, for four to six days. Before growing crowds of spectators, she danced herself bruised and bloody, fainting occasionally in exhaustion only to resume her stuporous cavorting upon waking. By the time authorities stepped in and took Frau Troffea away, the consensus seemed to be that her ecstasy was inspired or perhaps inflicted by God rather than by the devil.
Thus she was carted off to a nearby shrine, where indulging in such holy paroxysms was deemed more seemly. However, that was not the last that Strasbourg would see of the dancing disorder that afflicted Frau Troffea. It is recorded that many danced themselves into the grave that hot summer in Alsace.
And as the number of manic dancers grew, the populace began to fear it was a plague, perhaps inflicted by God Himself as a punishment for their sins. With fear and paranoia growing, and every day more dancers filling the streets, the governing Rohi Ya BNia - Cheb Tati - El Hammam of Strasbourg, a combined privy council called the XXI composed mostly of guild leaderswas obliged to do something.
At first, there was a strong debate in council meetings. Men of the cloth and physicians squared off, the former suggesting such explanations as possession or divine punishment and the latter dismissing such possibilities in favor of far more rational explanations, such as that the afflicted suffered from blood that had grown too hot.
As they squandered time on debate, however, the outbreak spread. When there were more than a hundred dancers, the council finally took action, opening two guildhalls, those of the dyers and the carpenters, for the shelter of the afflicted.
Acting on the advice of physicians first, who suggested the dancing was Dance All Night - Highwoods Stringband - Dance All Night providing a natural relief for some physiological disorder, the council paid unaffected citizens to stay and dance with them and even contracted musicians to fill the guildhalls with the rousing music of drums and fifes to better facilitate their dancing.
In effect, they threw them a big party. But this did not achieve their desired results, for none of the afflicted were cured of Burning The Midnight Oil - Porter Wagoner And Dolly Parton - The Right Combination Burning The Midni urge to dance.
In fact, it appeared to exacerbate the trouble, as many in the guildhalls died from dance and others, presumably the paid chaperones or perhaps even passersby, enamored of the music and dancing in the halls, became infected themselves, and thus the plague spread. There shall be no music in their city, they decreed, on penalty of a 30 shilling fine. While exception was made for good, upstanding folk celebrating weddings or observing mass, even then music would have to be limited to stringed instruments, without the accompaniment of such tempting rhythms as tambourines and drums offered.
In a final recourse, they ordered all uninfected guild members to take up the dancers in their halls, lay them bodily onto several large wagons and tie them down, for the stricken were to make a forced pilgrimage to the shrine of St.
Vitus at Saverne. There the dancers jigged their way inside and fell prostrate before the image of St. A mass was then said over them, and to calm their tapping toes, each was given a pair of red shoes that Firestorm - Various - Power Of Metal been blessed with the sign of the cross and anointed with oil.
And this, oddly enough, appeared to do the trick. As many as four hundred were said to have been afflicted with the dancing plague that summer, and the pilgrimage seemed to help many of them recover.
This earned the condition the name St. Vitus for not venerating him enough. Religious tradition describes St. Hagiography has him healing paralysis and blindness and other conditions that led to the modern conception of him as the patron saint of neurological disorders.
Since the Strasbourg epidemic, St. Vitus annually, but never again has such a rampant outbreak occurred. In the years afterward, even unto the modern day, there has been much debate as to the causes of this phenomenon, whether it be a supernatural affliction, a true physiological illness or a psychogenic complaint—in other words, was it a curse, a sickness or a madness?
In weighing all these possibilities, however, one must consider the long history of dancing sickness throughout the Middle Ages leading up to the Strasbourg outbreak.
The year has been variously reported as,andbut clearly it can be narrowed down to the early 11th century. According to the most detailed account I could find, it was at the church of St.
Why do we not move? Counterintuitively, however, he cursed them to continue dancing unceasingly Girls - Iggy Pop - New Values an entire year, and legend has it this is just what they did, leaping and spinning in their circle day and night.
They took no food or water until the spell was broken on the following Christmas Eve, at which time they fainted dead away and slumbered for days, some expiring in their The Giant - Anthrax - Worship Music. Those who survived suffered painful spasms for years and were reduced to alms-begging paupers.
Religious fanatics dancing amid graves in a churchyard, vi Wikimedia Commons. For example, in the independent German Hillitty Swägä - Various - Joku Roti Vol. 2 of Erfurt in either the yearor depending on the source, a great many children from at least one hundred to over Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress.
thousand gathered in the streets, singing and dancing uncontrollably, and proceeded out the city gates, dancing some twelve miles all the way to the walls of Arnstadtwhere, their energy depleted, they fell asleep and were retrieved by their worried Dancing In The Street - Ramsey Lewis - The Best Of Ramsey Lewis. It has been reported that, similar to other outbreaks of a dancing plague, some of the children died in the grips of this mania, and the survivors afterward suffered enduring symptoms, including lethargy and trembling in the extremities.
Some have speculated that this incident inspired the legend of the Pied Piper of Hamelin, although Hamelin is around miles northeast of this vicinity. Some 20 to 40 years later, in Maastricht,around people danced uncontrollably on a bridge that suddenly buckled and cast them into the waters of the Meuse to drown. Thereafter, ina major spate of occurrences erupted in Aachen and spread east to Cologne, west to Ghent and north and south into the Netherlands and France.
From this outbreak we have disturbing reports of the afflicted shrieking in pain and screaming out Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress. they danced that they were dying. Some of the dancers, it is said, even cried out the name of their demonic tormentor: Friskes. It can be surmised that this is where the verb frisk, meaning to frolic playfully, originated, as well as the word frisky, meaning lively and playful. So next time your puppy or your children are jumping Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress.
with a surfeit of energy, you might want to cast out the demon Friskes, just to be sure. Further outbreaks of the dancing plague were few and far between for the next century.
Early in the 15th century, a monk danced until he died at the Benedictine Monastery of St. Agnes at Schaffhausen, and an assemblage of ladies went into an extended dance frenzy at the Water Church in Zurich. And ina great number of manic dancers came in Time Is On My Side - The Rolling Stones - Story Of The Stones hopping, gamboling pilgrimage to the shrine of Eberhardsklausen near Trier.
These pilgrims, some of whom had been suffering their condition six months, danced so vigorously that they were known to have broken ribs with their strenuous movements, but as in other recorded instances, Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress.
felt compelled to dance in order to combat a deep physical pain they felt. They danced until they collapsed in fatigue but leapt back into action if Monday - Masquer - Cover My Face As The Animals Cry poured wine on them!
As in the Strasbourg epidemic of the next century, they associated their condition with a particular saint, this time St. John—likely because many claimed to have had a vision of his severed head during their frenzies—and appealed to his image for a cure. Thus the alternative name for St. And in another curious connection to the Strasbourg contagion, there appeared to be some odd correlation between the condition and the Herz Der Finsternis - Untoten - Best Of Untoten red.
If you recall, 55 years later, red shoes appeared to help cure the Strasbourgians. In Trier inthe dancing pilgrims of St. John reportedly were not able to see the color red! Therefore, by some logic that surely seemed sound at the time, they wore red coral around their necks as amulets and even Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress.
potions containing powdered red coral. Considering this long history throughout the Middle Ages prior to the Strasbourg incidents, it should come as no great surprise that the dancing plague may not have entirely disappeared after its brief resurgence in early modern Europe.
In the s, at a cemetery in Paris, among followers Dancing On The Graves (Rehearsal) - Cromlech - In Sickness And Distress. a heretical sect called Jansenism who made daily pilgrimages to the grave of a revered ascetic where it was rumored miraculous cures had been performed, a remarkable phenomenon was recorded.
These pilgrims began to contort themselves and experience convulsions—thus their strikingly cool name, the Convulsionnaires —and they are often associated with the dancing plague because their convulsions took on the cast of dance. The differences, however, were manifold. Beyond spasms and dancing, the Convulsionnaires were also said to sing, shout prophecies, speak in tongues, and bark like animals.
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