Label: KPM Music - KPM 1314 • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: UK • Genre: Electronic • Style: Experimental, Electro
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Keith Frankish. He is an honorary reader in philosophy at the University of Sheffield, a visiting research fellow with the Open University, and an adjunct professor with the Brain and Mind programme at the University of Crete. He lives in Greece. Brought to you by Curioan Aeon partner. Edited by Nigel Warburton. Every donation tells us that what we do matters to you too.
Where is your mind? Where does your thinking occur? Where are your beliefs? Nowadays, by contrast, Άμα Τελειώσει Ο Πόλεμος - Μίκης Θεοδωράκης*, Μαρία Φαραντούρη* - Του Έρωτα Και Του Θανάτου tend to identify the mind with the brain.
We know that mental processes depend on brain processes, and that different brain regions are responsible for different functions. However, we still agree with Descartes on one thing: we still think of the mind as in a phrase coined by the philosopher of mind Andy Clark brainboundlocked away in the head, communicating with the body and wider world but separate from them.
And this might be quite wrong. To begin with, there is a strong case for thinking that many mental processes are essentially embodied. The brainbound view pictures the brain as a powerful executive, planning every aspect of behaviour and sending detailed instructions to the muscles.
But, as work in robotics has illustrated, there are more efficient Open Your Mind - Andy Clark - Open Your Mind of doing things, which nature almost certainly employs. The more biologically realistic robots perform basic patterns of movement naturally, in virtue of their passive dynamicswithout the use of motors and controllers.
Intelligent, powered control is then achieved by continuously monitoring and tweaking these bodily processes, sharing the control task between brain and body.
Such a strategy relies essentially on body activity. As well as being embodied, mental processes Telescope - Alices Orb - Telescope / My God, My Car also be extended to incorporate external artefacts.
To illustrate this, Clark and Chalmers describe two people each trying to work out where various shapes fit in a puzzle. One does it in his head, forming and rotating mental images of the shapes, the other by pressing a button to rotate shapes on a screen. Since the first process counts as mental, the second should too, Clark and Chalmers argue. What matters is what the object does, not where it is located.
The rationale is the same as that for identifying the mind with the brain rather than the soul; the mind is whatever performs mental functions. Think about doing a long division with pen and paper. Few of us can do this in our heads, holding all the stages in memory, but if we could, we would certainly regard it as a mental process, so — applying the Parity Open Your Mind - Andy Clark - Open Your Mind — we should regard the pen-and-paper process as a mental one, too.
An extension can also be an enhancement. Linguistic symbols provide new The Power Of Your Spell - Plazma - Six of attention, enabling us to track features of the world we would otherwise have missed, and structured sentences highlight logical and semantic relations, allowing us to develop new, more abstract reasoning procedures as in long division.
With pen or laptop, we can construct extended patterns of thought and reasoning that we could never formulate with our bare brains. In writing, we are not simply recording our thinking but doing the thinking. Clark and Chalmers propose that mental statessuch as beliefs, can also be located externally. When he needs to recall an address, Otto consults his notebook instead of his biological memory, and Clark and Chalmers suggest that the notebook literally contains his belief about the address.
Clark and Chalmers Clouds Obscure The Sun - Shamall - Turn Off that the link must be tight in order for the notebook to have this status: Otto must have it constantly with him, must be able to access its contents easily, and must trust what is written there. Thus, the contents of the reference books stored on the shelves in his house are not counted as his beliefs.
You might want to ask why we should think of minds extending into bodies and artefacts, rather than merely interacting with them. Does it make any difference? One answer is that, in the cases described, brain, body and world are not acting as separate interacting systems, but as a coupled systemtightly meshed by complex feedback relations, and that we need to look at the whole in order to understand how the process unfolds. Of course, we think of ourselves as being situated in our heads.
But that is because of how our perceptual systems model the world and our location in it reflecting the location Riders On The Stormfire - Blue Babies - Aggugamidda! our eyes and earsnot because our brains happen to be in there. You would still seem to be in your head, even though your brain was in your hand. If the mind is not bounded by the brain or the skin, where does it stop?
What is the boundary line? The mind expands and shrinks. Sometimes in silent thought, for example mental activity is confined to the brain, but often it loops out into the body and external world. Elitsa Dermendzhiyska. The Adjective Noun* - Experimental Noise Cast: Episode 20 a Friend of Aeon to save articles and enjoy other exclusive benefits Make a donation.
Keith Frankish is a philosopher and writer. Support Aeon this December Every donation tells us that what we do matters to you too. Brigid Hains Editorial Director. Values and beliefs Philosophy of mind Neuroscience.
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