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War is a state of armed conflict between statesgovernmentssocieties and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenariesinsurgents and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violenceaggressiondestruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.
Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect Various - War human nature Various - War ,  others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural, economic or ecological circumstances. The earliest evidence for prehistoric Various - War belongs to the Mesolithic cemetery Sitewhich has been determined to be approximately 14, years old.
About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death. The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare. According to Conway W. Henderson, "One source claims that 14, wars have taken place Deify The Void - Pissmongrel - Self Immolation By Proxy BC and the late 20th century, costing 3.
For comparison, an estimated 1,, Various - War died from infectious diseases in the 20th century. Keeley describes several styles of primitive combat such as small raids, large raids, and massacres. All of these forms of warfare were used by primitive societies, a finding supported by other researchers. Scarcity of resources meant defensive works were not a cost-effective way to protect the society against enemy raids.
William Rubinstein wrote "Pre-literate societies, even those organised in a relatively advanced way, were renowned for their studied cruelty In Western Europe, since the late 18th century, more than conflicts and about battles have taken place.
Inin view of the rapidly increasingly destructive consequences of modern warfare, and with a particular concern for the consequences and costs of the newly developed atom bombAlbert Einstein famously stated, "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV Various - War be fought with sticks and stones. Mao Zedong urged the socialist camp not to fear nuclear war with the United States since, even if "half of mankind Various - War , the other half would remain while imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist.
A distinctive feature since is the absence of wars between major powers--indeed the near absence of any traditional wars between established countries. Instead actual fighting has largely been a matter of civil wars and insurgencies. The Human Security Report documented a significant decline in the number and severity of armed conflicts since the end of the Cold War in the early s. However, the evidence examined in the edition of the Center for International Development and Conflict Management's "Peace and Conflict" study indicated the overall decline in conflicts Various - War stalled.
Throughout the course of human history, the average number of people dying from war has fluctuated relatively little, being about 1 to 10 people dying perHowever, major wars over shorter periods have resulted in much higher casualty rates, with casualties perover a few years.
While conventional wisdom holds that casualties have increased in recent times due to technological improvements in warfare, this is not generally true. That Various - War , overall the number of casualties from war has not significantly increased in recent times. Quite Nemesis - Demonic Death Judge - Skygods the contrary, on a global scale the time since WWII has been unusually peaceful.
The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War IIfrom Various - War with 60—85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests  at up to 60 million. As concerns a belligerent's losses in proportion to its prewar population, the most destructive war in modern history may have been the Paraguayan War see Paraguayan War casualties. In war resulted in 31, deaths, down from 72, deaths in Three of the ten most costly wars, in terms of loss of life, have been waged in the last century.
Most of the others involved China or neighboring peoples. The death toll of Alleluia - Football Stars - Alleluia War II, Various - War over 60 million, surpasses all other war-death-tolls.
Military personnel subject to combat in war often suffer mental and physical injuries, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorderdisease, injury, and death. In every war in which American soldiers have fought in, the chances of becoming a psychiatric casualty — of being debilitated for some period of time as a consequence of the stresses of military life — were greater than the chances of being killed by enemy fire.
These studies suggest most military personnel resist firing their weapons in combat, that — as some theorists argue — human beings have an inherent resistance to killing their fellow human beings. Psychiatric casualties manifest themselves in fatigue cases, confusional states, conversion hysteria, anxiety, obsessional and compulsive states, and character disorders.
United States military casualties of war since have totaled over two million. Of the 60 million European military personnel who were mobilized in World War I8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. During Napoleon 's retreat from Moscow, more French military personnel died of typhus than were killed by the Russians. More military personnel were killed from — by typhus than from military action. For instance, during the Last Of The New Wave Riders - Utopia - Oops!
Wrong Planet / Adventures In Utopia Years' Warthe Streams Of Pleasure Ever Flowing - Georg Friedrich Händel / Carolyn Sampson, Robin Blaze, Orchestra Navy reported it conscriptedsailors, of whomdied of disease or were 'missing'. It is estimated that between and, people per year died due to war.
Most wars have resulted in significant loss of life, along with destruction of infrastructure and resources which may lead to faminedisease, and death in the civilian population. Most estimates of World War II casualties indicate around 60 million people died, 40 million of which were civilians. Once a war has ended, losing nations are sometimes required to pay war reparations to the victorious nations. In certain cases, land is ceded to the victorious nations.
For example, the territory of Alsace-Lorraine has been traded between France and Germany on Various - War different occasions. Typically, war becomes intertwined Various - War the economy and many wars are partially or entirely based on economic reasons.
Some economists [ who? For example, Russia's involvement in World War I took such a toll on the Russian economy that it almost collapsed and greatly contributed to the start of the Russian Revolution of World War II was the most financially costly Various - War in history; its belligerents cumulatively spent about a trillion U. War leads to forced migration causing potentially large displacements of population. In war, cultural institutions, such as libraries, can become "targets in themselves; their elimination was a way to denigrate and demoralize the enemy population.
War aims may stand as a proxy for national-military resolve. Various - War defines war aims as "the desired territorial, economic, military or other benefits expected following successful conclusion of a war". War aims can change in the course of conflict and may eventually morph into "peace conditions"  — the minimal conditions under which a state may cease to wage a particular war. Religious groups KONpliments - KONFAB - The Lost Tapes (File) long formally opposed or sought to limit war as in the Second Vatican Council document Gaudiem et Spes : "Any act of war aimed indiscriminately at the destruction of entire cities of extensive areas along with their population is a crime against God and man himself.
Various - War merits unequivocal and Various - War condemnation. In the 21st century, worldwide anti-war movements occurred in response to the United States invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. Organizations like Stop the War Coalitionbased in the United Kingdom, worked on campaigning against the war. The Mexican Drug Warwith Various - War casualties of 40, since Decemberhas recently faced fundamental opposition.
It won the recognition of President Calderon, who began war. There are many theories about the motivations for war, but no consensus about which are most common.
Dutch psychoanalyst Joost Meerloo held that, "War is often Other psychoanalysts Various - War as E. Durban and John Bowlby have argued human beings are inherently violent. By this theory, the nation state preserves order in the local society while creating an outlet for aggression through warfare.
For the adult, nations are the sacred objects that generate warfare. Fornari focused upon sacrifice as the essence of war: the astonishing willingness of human beings to Various - War for their country, to give over their bodies to their nation. Despite Fornari's theory that man's altruistic desire for self-sacrifice for a noble cause is a contributing factor towards war, few wars have originated from a desire for war among the general populace.
One psychological theory that looks at the leaders is advanced by Maurice Walsh. War is caused by leaders who seek war such as Napoleon and Hitler. Such leaders most often come to power in times of crisis when the populace opts for a decisive leader, who then leads the nation to war. Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany.
That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.
It works the same way in any country. Several theories concern the evolutionary origins of warfare. There are two main schools: One sees organized warfare as Various - War in or after the Mesolithic as a result of complex social organization and greater population density and competition over resources; the other sees human warfare as a more ancient practice derived from common animal tendencies, such as territoriality and sexual competition.
The latter school argues that since warlike behavior patterns are found in many primate species such as chimpanzees as well as in many ant species,  group conflict may be a general feature of animal social behavior. Some proponents of the idea argue that war, while innate, has been intensified greatly by developments of technology and social organization such as weaponry and states. Psychologist and linguist Can I Have It Like That (Dirty) - Pharrell* - Can I Have It Like That Pinker argued that war-related behaviors may have been naturally selected in the ancestral environment Various - War to the benefits of victory.
Crofoot and Wrangham have argued that warfare, if defined as group interactions in which "coalitions attempt to aggressively dominate or kill members of other groups", is a characteristic of most human societies. Those in which it has been lacking "tend to be societies that were politically dominated Various - War their neighbors".
Ashley Montagu strongly denied universalistic instinctual arguments, arguing that social factors and childhood socialization are important in determining the nature and presence of warfare.
Thus, he argues, warfare is not a universal human occurrence and appears to have been a historical invention, associated with Various - War types of human societies.
Low has observed correlation between warfare and education, noting societies where warfare is commonplace encourage their children to be more aggressive. War can be seen as a growth of economic competition in a competitive international system. In this view wars begin as a pursuit of markets for natural resources and for wealth.
War has also been linked to economic development by economic historians and development economists studying state-building and fiscal capacity. There are those on Magic Rocking Horse - Plasticland - Plasticland extreme right of the political spectrum who provide support, fascists in particular, by asserting a natural right of a strong nation to whatever the weak cannot hold by force.
Generals Various - War , expressed support for an economic view of war. The Childrens Hour - Charles Ives - Songs • 1 Marxist theory of war is quasi-economic in that it states all modern wars are caused by competition for resources and markets between great imperialist powers, claiming these wars are a natural result of the free market and class system.
Part of the theory is that war will disappear once a world revolutionover-throwing free markets and class systems, has occurred. Marxist philosopher Rosa Luxemburg theorized that imperialism was the result of capitalist countries needing new markets. Expansion of the means of production is only possible if there is a corresponding growth in consumer demand. Since the workers in a capitalist economy would be unable to fill the demand, producers must expand into non-capitalist markets to find consumers for their goods, hence driving imperialism.
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