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After acceding to the throne, Alfred spent several years fighting Viking invasions. He won a decisive victory in the Battle of Edington in and made an agreement with the Vikings, creating what was known as the Danelaw in the North of England. Alfred also oversaw the conversion of Viking leader Guthrum to Christianity. He defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, becoming the dominant ruler in England. Alfred had a reputation as a learned and merciful man of a gracious and level-headed nature who encouraged education, proposing that primary education be conducted in Anglo-Saxon rather than Latin and improving the legal system, military structure and his people's quality of life.
He was given the epithet "the Great" during and after the Reformation in the sixteenth century. The only other king of England given this epithet is Cnut the Great. Alfred was born in the royal estate of WantageBesos De Hiel - Orquesta La Corporacion Latina* - Corporacion Latina in Berkshire but now in Oxfordshirebetween and This is unlikely; his succession could not have been foreseen at the time as Alfred had three living elder brothers.
A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a " consul " and a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later Let It Roll - UFO - Essential. With civil war looming the magnates of the realm met in council to hammer out a compromise.
Bishop Asser tells the story of how, as a child, Alfred won a book of Saxon poems, offered as a prize by his mother to the first of her children able to memorize it. Alfred was troubled by health problems throughout his life. It is thought that he may have suffered from Crohn's disease.
Evidence suggests he was not physically strong and, though not lacking in courage, he was noted more for his intellect than as a warlike character. During this period, Bishop Asser gave Alfred the unique title of secundariuswhich may indicate a position similar to the Celtic tanista recognised successor closely associated with the reigning monarch. It was a well known tradition among other Germanic peoples - such as the Swedes and Franks to whom the Anglo-Saxons were closely related - to crown a successor as royal prince and military commander.
A successful skirmish at the Battle of Englefield in Berkshire on 31 December was followed by a severe defeat at the siege and the Battle of Reading by Ivar's brother Halfdan Ragnarsson on 5 January Alfred is particularly credited with the success of this last battle.
The deceased's sons would receive only whatever property and riches their father had settled upon them and whatever additional lands their uncle had acquired. The unstated premise was that the surviving brother would be king. Given the Danish invasion and the youth of his nephews, Alfred's accession probably went uncontested.
While he was busy with the burial ceremonies for his brother, the Danes defeated the Saxon army in his absence at an unnamed spot and then again in his presence at Wilton in May. Alfred was forced instead to make peace with them, according to sources that do not tell what the terms of the peace were.
Bishop Asser claimed that the pagans agreed to vacate the realm and made good their promise. The Viking army withdrew from Reading in Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine autumn of to take up Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine quarters in Mercian London. Although not mentioned by Asser or by the Anglo-Saxon ChronicleAlfred probably paid the Vikings cash to leave, much as the Mercians were to do in the following year. These finds hint at the cost involved in making peace with the Vikings.
For the next five years the Danes occupied other parts of England. In under their new leader, Guthrumthe Put The Light On - Wet Wet Wet - The Greatest Hits And More (DVD) slipped past the Saxon army and attacked and occupied Wareham in Dorset.
Alfred blockaded them but was unable to take Wareham by assault. Alfred blockaded the Viking ships in Devon and with a relief fleet having been scattered by a storm, the Danes were forced to submit.
The Danes withdrew to Mercia. In January the Danes made a sudden attack on Chippenhama royal stronghold in which Alfred had been staying over Christmas "and most of the people they killed, except the King Alfred, and he with a little band made his way by wood and swamp, and after Easter he made a fort at Athelney in the marshes of Somersetand from that fort kept fighting against the foe".
A legend, originating from 12th century chronicles, tells how when he first fled to the Somerset LevelsAlfred was given shelter by a peasant woman who, unaware of his identity, left him to watch some wheaten cakes she had left cooking on the fire. With all the other kingdoms having fallen to the Vikings, Wessex alone was still resisting.
In the seventh week after Easter 4—10 Mayaround WhitsuntideAlfred rode to Egbert's Stone east of Selwood where he was met by "all the people of Somerset and of Wiltshire and of that part of Hampshire which is on this side of the sea that is, west of Southampton Waterand they Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine to see him". This meant not only that the king had retained the loyalty of ealdormenroyal reeves and king's thegnswho were charged with levying and leading these forces, but that they had maintained their positions of authority in these localities well enough to answer his summons to war.
Alfred's actions also suggest a system of scouts and messengers. Alfred won a decisive victory in the ensuing Battle of Edington which may have been fought near Westbury, Wiltshire. He then pursued the Danes to their stronghold at Chippenham and starved them into submission.
One of the terms of the surrender was that Guthrum convert to Christianity. Three weeks later the Danish king and 29 of his chief men were baptised at Alfred's court at Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine , near Athelneywith Alfred receiving Guthrum as his spiritual son. The unbinding of the chrisom [f] on the eighth day took place at a royal estate called Wedmore.
While at Wedmore Alfred and Guthrum negotiated what some historians have called the Treaty of Wedmorebut it was to be some years after the cessation of hostilities that a formal treaty was signed. Consequently, in the Viking army left Chippenham and made its way to Cirencester. That treaty divided up the kingdom of Mercia. By Bourrée - Prokofieff*, Hugo Rignold, Royal Opera House Orchestra, Covent Garden* - Cinderella Suites terms the boundary between Alfred's and Guthrum's kingdoms was to run up the River Thames to the River Leafollow the Lea to its source near Lutonfrom there extend in a straight line to Bedfordand from Bedford follow Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine River Ouse to Watling Street.
In other words, Alfred succeeded to Ceolwulf's kingdom consisting of western Mercia, and Guthrum incorporated the eastern part of Mercia into an enlarged kingdom of East Anglia henceforward known as the Danelaw.
By terms of the treaty, moreover, Alfred was to have control over the Mercian city of London and its mints—at least for the time being. Intwo metal detectorists operating without landowner permission found a large hoard near Leominster consisting primarily of Saxon jewellery and silver ingots but also coins; the latter date to around CE.
The hoard is believed to have been buried by a Viking during their raids of the area, while Wessex was ruled by Alfred and Mercia by Ceolwulf II. Coins recovered from the treasure hunters depict both kings, "indicating an alliance between the two kingdoms—at Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine , for a time—that was previously unknown to historians". The presence of both kings on the two emperor coins suggests some sort of pact between the pair. But the rarity of the coins also suggests that Alfred quickly dropped his ally, who was just about written out of history.
With the signing of the Treaty of Alfred and Guthruman event most commonly held to have taken place around when Guthrum's people began settling East AngliaGuthrum was neutralised as a threat. Alfred was still forced to contend with a number of Danish threats.
A year later, inAlfred fought a small sea battle against four Danish ships "on the high seas". In —though there is some debate over the year—King Alfred, because of his support and his donation of alms to Rome, received a number of gifts from Pope Marinus. According to Asser, because of Pope Marinus's friendship with King Alfred, the pope granted an exemption to any Anglo-Saxons residing within Rome from tax or tribute. After the signing of the treaty with Guthrum, Alfred was spared any large-scale conflicts for some time.
Despite this relative peace the king was still forced to deal with a number of Danish raids and incursions. Among these was a raid in Kentan allied kingdom in South East Englandduring the yearwhich was quite possibly the largest raid since the battles with Guthrum.
Asser's account of the raid places the Danish raiders at the Saxon Final Stage - Game Over of Rochester  where they built a temporary fortress in order to besiege the city.
In response to this incursion Alfred led an Anglo-Saxon force against the Danes who, instead of engaging the army of Wessex, fled to their beached ships and sailed to another part of Britain. The retreating Danish force supposedly left Britain the following summer.
The purpose of Strange Paradise - Max Greger - Tanz Mit Mir - 56 Hits Im Tanzmit-Sound expedition is debated, though Asser claims that it was for the sake of plunder.
The Danish fleet defeated Alfred's fleet, which may have been weakened in the previous engagement. A year later, inAlfred reoccupied the city of London and set out to make it Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine again.
The restoration of London progressed through the latter half of the s and is believed to have revolved around a new street plan; added fortifications in addition to the existing Roman walls; and, some believe, the construction of matching fortifications on the south bank of the River Thames. This is also the period in which almost all chroniclers agree that the Saxon people of pre-unification England submitted to Alfred. Between the restoration of London and the resumption of large-scale Danish attacks in the early s, Alfred's reign was rather uneventful.
One year later Guthrum, or Athelstan by his baptismal name, Alfred's former enemy and king of East Anglia, died and was buried in Hadleigh, Suffolk. The resulting power vacuum stirred up other power-hungry warlords eager to take his place in the following years.
The quiet years of Alfred's life were coming to a close. After another lull, in the autumn of orthe Danes attacked again. Finding their position in mainland Europe precarious, they crossed to England in ships in two divisions.
They entrenched themselves, the larger body, at Appledore, Kent and the lesser under Hasteinat Miltonalso in Kent. The invaders brought their wives and children with them indicating a meaningful attempt at conquest and colonisation. Alfred, in ortook up a position from which he could observe both forces. While he was in talks with Hastein, the Danes at Appledore broke Gravel - King Alfred Man Of Leisure - We Are Submarine and struck north-westwards.
They were overtaken by Alfred's eldest son, Edward and were defeated in a general engagement at Farnham in Surrey. They took refuge on an island at Thorneyon the River Colne between Buckinghamshire and Middlesexwhere they were blockaded and forced to give hostages and promise to leave Wessex.
Alfred had been on his way to relieve his son at Thorney when he heard that the Northumbrian and East Anglian Danes were besieging Exeter and an unnamed stronghold on the North Devon shore. Alfred at once hurried westward and raised the Siege of Exeter. The fate of the other place is not recorded. The force under Hastein set out to march up the Thames Valleypossibly with the idea of assisting their friends in the west.
They were met by a large force under the three great ealdormen of Mercia Get To Hell Out Of Here - Aztecs* - Live, Wiltshire and Somerset and forced to head off to the north-west, being finally overtaken and blockaded at Buttington.
An attempt to break through the English lines failed. Those who escaped retreated to Shoebury. After collecting reinforcements, they made a sudden dash across England and occupied the ruined Roman walls of Chester. The English did not attempt a winter blockade but contented themselves with destroying all the supplies in the district. Early in or lack of food obliged the Danes to retire once more to Essex.
A frontal attack on the Danish lines failed but later in the year, Alfred saw a means of obstructing the river to prevent the egress of the Danish ships. The Danes realised that they were outmanoeuvred, struck off north-westwards and wintered at Cwatbridge near Bridgnorth. The next year, orthey gave up the struggle. Some retired to Northumbriasome to East Anglia.
Those who had no connections in England returned to the continent. The Germanic tribes who invaded Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries relied upon the unarmoured infantry supplied by their tribal levyor fyrd, and it was upon this system that the military power of the several kingdoms of early Anglo-Saxon England depended.
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